National Endowment for the Humanities Program For K–12 Teachers in Flagstaff


Online Pre-Session

Zoom Synchronous

You will read the following article(s) and participate in a synchronous online lecture and discussion with Dr. David Dunaway. This will build the necessary general background on Route 66 that will help you to examine more deeply the multiple perspectives, stories,  and places along Route 66.


Residential Portion in Flagstaff, AZ

Each day has a compelling question and pedagogical focus. Also note that the times may vary as we approach the exact dates.


Teachers will arrive in Flagstaff in the morning and afternoon and check into their NAU dorm room or hotel. We would like everyone to be settled by 5:00 p.m.

6:00-7:00 p.m. Welcome Reception

7:00-8:00 p.m. Orientation to the week.

Dr. Guthrie and Dr. McAllister will go over the goals for the week and our schedule. We will answer questions and address concerns. The evening will end with a viewing of videos by Candacy Taylor on the Green Book and Route 66. Teachers will be able to review other materials, such as Driving While Black (PBS: 2020) at their convenience. Teachers will be asked to write down questions for Dr. Guthrie tomorrow.


Compelling questions: What is the racial landscape along Route 66 in Flagstaff? How can teachers’ best work with primary sources in teaching stories about Route 66?

Pedagogical focus: How to work with archival materials; juxtaposition of then and now fostering chronological thinking and inquiry

Content: How different racial and ethnic groups were pulled to the Southside to serve, celebrate cultures, and entertain visitors traveling on Route 66.

Breakfast available on campus at 8:00 a.m.

Teachers will have time to read the assigned chapter.

10:00 a.m -12:00 Teachers will meet Dr. Guthrie in front of the library.

Lecture and Route 66 walking tour (tour will be adapted as needed for accessibility) with Dr. Ricardo Guthrie. The tour will focus on downtown Flagstaff along the Southside neighborhood, where African Americans, Hispanics/Latinx and Native Americans were forced to live. Some sites include the Murdoch Community Center, the Basque Tourist Home and Handball court, Our Lady of Guadalupe Catholic Church, Green Book buildings, and the Code Talker statue. Teachers will engage in discussions about how cultural institutions, businesses, and social organizations worked together to build community, to transform and challenge pioneer, westward expansion narratives into a welcoming place for home along Route 66.

12:00-2:00 p.m. Teachers will be able to stay downtown and enjoy lunch at the many locations.

2:00-5:00 p.m. We will begin the afternoon with reflections on the morning walking tour with Dr. Guthrie. This will be followed by a workshop on using archival materials with Sean Evans from Special Collections. Drawing upon the material in the Cline Special Collections on African Americans, Native Americans and Hispanics/Latinx in Flagstaff and Route 66, teachers will attend a workshop with Mr. Sean Evans on using primary sources in curriculum development. Teachers will connect experiences from the morning with the use of images, oral histories and other archival materials. This will include photographs, documents, oral histories and videos, as well as links to digital archives. Teachers will learn ways to help their students engage with digital humanities by becoming historical researchers, and conducting archival research. The day will end with Dr. McAllister sharing her middle school unit on the Green Book in Flagstaff which builds on the work earlier with Dr. Guthrie. She will model how middle schoolers used the archival materials, readings and videos to examine the relationship between African Americans, the Green Book and Route 66.

6:00 p.m. For those who are interested they can join Sean Evans at the Mother Road Brewery. They will have an opportunity to meet the owner of this micro-brewery and hear his connection to Route 66.


  • Northern Arizona Pioneers’ Historical Society (1993). City of Flagstaff Southside and Old Town: historical building survey.
  • Taylor, C. (2020). Chapter 8: The Roots of Route 66. In Overground Railroad: The Green Book and the roots of Black travel in America. New York: Abrams. Read through her website


Compelling questions: How did Route 66 foster interactions among communities? Especially, how did those interactions affect African-American communities? How can teachers best use primary sources in teaching Route 66?

Pedagogical focus: Working with oral histories and story mapping

Content: Examination of Negro Motorist Green Book Travel Guide and Black community development, education, and cultural enrichment

8:00 – 10:00 a.m. Breakfast on campus

10:00-12:00 Room 190 College of Education

In the morning teachers will begin with a workshop with Dr. David Dunaway on working with oral histories. Sources of the workshop will use local Flagstaff African Americans , Route 66 African American oral histories and the New York Public library green book archive. Dr. Dunaway will also draw on information from his books on oral histories.

12:00 – 2:00 p.m. Lunch on campus or at nearby local eateries

2:00-5:00 p.m.

Teachers will go on a walking tour of Flagstaff with Dr. Ricardo Guthrie to examine the African-American presence along Route 66 in Flagstaff through stories, murals, and visits to Green Book buildings. This place-based approach will be connected to the diaspora migration of African Americans, Jim Crow, and desegregation struggles. The tour will incorporate a lecture at the Murdoch Center, an African-American center in Flagstaff, situated on the site of the segregated Dunbar School (1926-1954).


  • Selections from Dunaway, D. K. & Baum, W.K. (1992). Oral History: An Interdisciplinary
    Anthology (AASLH Book Series) 2
    nd Ed. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.
  • Reid, J. (2014). The great migration in northern Arizona: Southern Blacks move to Flagstaff 1940–1960. The Journal of Arizona History, 55 (4), 469-498.
  • Friederici, P., et al. (2016). “Working the Woods an Oral History with Reverend Raymond Flemons.” In What Has Passed and What Remains: Oral Histories of Northern Arizona’s Changing Landscapes (U of AZ Press).


Compelling question: How was Native Culture portrayed during Route 66 and how is it today? How did geography connect past and present?

Pedagogical Focus: Using digital media humanities platform Omeka and Juxtaposition

Content: Native American experiences and voices along Route 66

10:00 a.m. Meet at College of Education parking lot to board bus to Two Arrows and Twin Arrows Casino and Hotel 

This day teachers will travel 20 minutes outside Flagstaff to visit the site of 2 large arrows planted on the side of 66. This iconic image reflects the story of Native American tropes used to bring tourism to Route 66 by nonnatives. Sean Evans, Route 66 curator at NAU’s Cline Library will serve as the guide, providing a history of this image as well as the nearby classic Two Gun tourist site. These will then be juxtaposed with the recent Navajo Twin Arrows Casino to consider how Indian-based tourism differs from those not native.

12:00-2:00 p.m. Lunch at Twin Arrows Casino and travel back to Flagstaff

2:00-5:00 p.m. In the afternoon teachers will examine and discuss the concept of juxtaposition and its use in fostering inquiry and deep thinking. Dr. Pratt Sturges will provide an introductory workshop on the use of Omeka as a vehicle for student projects and holding Route 66 images, voices and lessons. She has been using this humanities platform with her students for several years. Teachers will use the images they collected and the Omeka platform to set up visual juxtapositions. Resources to be used:


  • American Indians and Route 66 Project. American Indian Alaskan Native Tourism
    Association (2016).


Compelling question: How did the Flagstaff All-Indian Pow-Wows reflect the complexity of relations along Route 66?

Pedagogical focus: Reading against the Grain technique

Content: Native American history and interpretation of Route 66, as well as Interpreting the Flagstaff All-Indian Pow-Wow 

8:00-10:00 a.m. Breakfast on their own

10:00-11:15 a.m. We will begin the morning by examining and discussing the archival materials from the virtual exhibit The Flagstaff All-Indian Pow-Wow developed by the Cline Library Special Collections with a diverse team of Native American and non-Native archivists. Pow Wows and Route 66. Included in the session will also be the discussion of how to use oral history and archival images in their units.

11:15-11:30 a.m. Break

11:30-12:30 p.m. Dr. Joe Martin from the Navajo Nation (and an NAU faculty member) will share his personal experiences regarding the Flagstaff Pow-Wows. He will talk about the complexities of the Pow-wow in both supporting indigenous communities, as well as the potential exploitation for local businesses.

12:30-2:00 p.m. Lunch on your own

2:00-3:00 p.m.

Dr. McAllister will share a model lesson using the Reading Against the Grain technique as teachers compare classic descriptions of Route 66 with the American Indians and Route 66 study by the American Indian Alaskan Native Tourist Association. This activity will clearly show through literature the power of voice and perspective.

3:00-3:30 p.m. Break

3:30-4:15 p.m. Teachers will be introduced to a second digital platform Story mapping, through the sharing of the Shades of Route 66 project by Sean Evans. Teachers will be able to try out the free version and assess if this is a digital platform they might use for their curriculum project.

4:15-4:30 p.m. Break

4:30-6:00 p.m. Teacher work time where they will have access to computers as well as a collaborative space to work with the project team, as well as one another. Teachers will begin to identify standards and themes to address in their curricular project. Teachers will have access to the Cline Library archives and the project team. Having these individuals as resources during that session will foster a deeper connection of practice to the project’s humanities themes.


  • Snell,L. H. (2016). American Indians and Route 66 (Albuquerque: American Indian Alaska Native Tourism Association.
  • Arthur Krim, Route 66: Iconography of the American Highway (Santa Fe, NM: Center for American Places, 2005), 31–32.
  • L Neumann, D. (2013). Against the grain: Teaching historical complexity. Social Education 77(6), pp 310–313.


Compelling question: How have Latinx and Hispanics connected to Route 66? And how can teachers use the stories, history, culture, and art of Route 66 to challenge the master narrative of American history?

Pedagogical Focus: Curriculum development

Content: Hispanics and Route 66, teaching to broaden the narrative of America.

8:00 a.m. -10:00 a.m. Breakfast

10:00-12:00 a.m. Lecture by Dr. Mondrogoc on an overview of Route 66 and the Hispanic community. This will be followed by a discussion with Dr. Mondrogoc and Dr. Guthrie.

12:00-3:00 p.m. Lunch together at Route 66 Tinderbox at Basque Handball Court and Tourist Hotel which has Basque and Spanish historical connections

3:00-5:00 p.m. We will end the afternoon with a reflection discussion session with Dr. Dunaway, Dr. Mondrogoc, and Dr. Guthrie. The focus of this will be on how teachers can broaden the narrative of Route 66.

5:00 p.m-8:00 p.m. Teachers will have free time. The NAU archival materials will be available as well as Mr. Sean Evans, Dr. McAllister, Dr. Guthrie and Dr. Dunaway to work with teachers.


Saturday Morning

This can be a travel day for teachers, but the Special Collections will be open with Dr. McAllister, Sean Evans and Dr. Dunaway available to work with teachers

Saturday and Sunday

Travel days as determined by teachers

Online Post-Session

Zoom Synchronous

Compelling question: How can teachers use the history of Route 66 to challenge the master narrative of American history? We will have an online, zoom-synchronous session facilitated by Dr. McAllister. The teachers will share their curriculum projects. We will answer questions, provide feedback and suggestions as they share what they have produced to this point. We will also engage in an evaluation discussion facilitated by Dr. Guthrie

See the full Bibliography

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